University Archives: Mascots

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Secondary Sources for Nickname/Mascot Controversy

Primary Sources Related to Nicknames/Mascots at Marquette

Photo of Marquette's First WarriorMarquette University has had a variety of nicknames and associated mascots over the years. The nicknames and mascots are representative of the era from which they were created and should be viewed within the context of that period. The University Archives holds and preserves documents, artifacts and media in its collection that may depict
perspectives and actions that may not be necessarily in keeping with contemporary Marquette University values. There are many records documenting nicknames and mascots throughout the University Archives. Following are the major sources related to nicknames and mascots:

  • The Photographs and General Information Files contain photographic prints as well as assorted newspaper clippings and print materials documenting the mascot issue and reporting on its history. Following are specific files that are likely to be of interest: 00130a (Bleuteaux), 00310 (Cheerleaders),  00316 (Chief White Buck), 00621aa (Golden Eagles), 00985 (Nickname/Mascot; multiple folders divided chronologically), 01380 (Willie Wampum), 01385 (First Warrior), and 01387 (Warriors).
  • Student government leaders played an important role in the establishment and retirement of nicknames and mascots at Marquette throughout the years. Student government records are maintained as a series. Researchers will want to consult files related to the mascot committee, warrior head committee, Willie Wampum, and specific resolutions and legislation from years under consideration.
  • The Athletic Board and Department of Athletics Administration have played a role in the approval of nicknames and the selection of alternatives. Athletic Board minutes and other subject files include some documentation of the board's involvement. A restricted series within the Department of Athletics Administration includes correspondence and suggestions for alternate nicknames proposed in 1993-1994 (the archives staff can help make a request on your behalf for access to these restricted records, though permission may not be granted).
  • In 2005, the university considered its nickname and mascot in response to an offer from a member of the Board of Trustees to donate a considerable sum in exchange for a reversion to the nickname, “Warriors.” Archives staff collected material documenting the community conversation and website developed to solicit feedback in its Athletics Nickname/Mascot Collection.Black & White photo of Marquette's mascot Bluetoe
  • The student newspaper, The Marquette Tribune, covered the ongoing conversation about mascots and nicknames. The publication is in the process of being digitized; a rough index to headlines through the mid-1970s is available upon request. Print copies of the Tribune are available for consultation in the Archives Reading Room. 
  • Rev. Edward J. O'Donnell, S.J., was president of the university at the time Willie Wampum and the Warriors name were adopted; Rev. John P. Raynor, S.J., was university president during many of the subsequent transitions; Executive Vice President Quentin Quade was involved in many high-level administrative decisions during Raynor's tenure. These records are currently being processed and are not described online; access to the records may be granted with the permission of the President's Office (the archives staff can help make a request on your behalf).
  • The University Archives maintains the physical costumes worn as Willie Wampum, Bleuteaux, and the First Warrior. Use of these items is restricted, but they may be viewed in the Archives Reading Room.
  • Dr. John Krugler's Public History students created two oral histories during a classroom examination of the nickname and mascot issue. The created a video oral history with Mark Denning, who represented Marquette as the First Warrior, and an audio oral history with Dr. James Scott, Vice President for Student Affairs from 1970-1992. Willie Wampum was dropped and First Warrior and Bleuteaux were added and dropped during Scott's administration.

Audiovisual Resources Related to Nicknames/Mascot at Marquette

Many images are digitized and part of Marquette University History Online

The Hilltop yearbooks (1915-1996) have been digitized and are available online. They contain photographs and other information about athletic mascots.   Use the “Advanced Search” feature to search for “First Warrior,” “Willie Wampum,” "Bleuteaux," etc. Keep in mind that the spelling of the mascot names changed through the years and you’ll want to use a variety of alternatives.

The university's slide collection mirrors the Photographs and General Information Files described above, but is limited to images in color slide format. Relevant topics include "First Warrior," "Mascots," and "Bleuteaux." Additional images of the various mascots may be included in the cheerleading and basketball "files."

Brief performances by the mascots may have been captured during recording of men's basketball and football games.