In the 1960's and 1970's commercial publishers took interest in publishing scholarly work that was being published by nonprofit academic societies. The economic model for doing this involves:
There are some inherent problems with this model:
The steep rise in subscription costs for scholarly journals, especially in the sciences, has had a significant impact on libraries. This price escalation has often led to routine cancellations of journal subscriptions and cutbacks in other areas of collecting.
Open access in academia means to have scholarly research works available on the web without fees and without copyright restrictions. Different models for OA exist. Two more common models include:
Some universities and granting organizations place mandates on authors to comply with open access models. The National Institute of Health (NIH) mandates researchers funded by the organization to submit final peer-reviewed manuscripts to the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Central for open access within 12 months of publication.
The proposed Fair Access to Science & Technology Research Act (FASTR) would require agencies receiving $100 million or more annually in publicly-funded research funds to provide open, online access to research manuscripts stemming from such funding no later than twelve months after publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
Institutional and disciplinary repositories have emerged to support open access. Content in these open access repositories may vary. Most contain peer-reviewed scholarly journals, journal articles, books, or book chapters all with varied pre or post-publication formatting. The University of Marquette has had its IR since 2009. Visit ePublications@Marquette to view the scholarly work of our faculty, staff, and students.
Other repositories can be found through OpenDOAR, the Directory of Open Access Repositories. This resource not only allows users to search for repositories but also repository contents and statistics.
There are many universities and disciplinary organizations creating openly accessible journals for researchers to publish in. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a resource for scholars and researchers interested in depositing their work in a peer-reviewed, openly accessible electronic journal.
Many measuring systems have been created to assist researchers with understanding the impact of research. There isn't a "best" system. Each have inherent flaws that should be recognized when used.
A nice overview of the various impact metrics systems can be viewed on the Raynor Memorial Libraries "Impact Factors" webpage: