Multimedia: How to Cite Media

A collection of resources geared toward helping users with audio and visual research needs.
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Citing Media »

Below are instructions on how to cite some commonly used multimedia in APA, MLA and Chicago Manual of Style. Visit the Purdue OWL for instructions on citing objects not listed here.

APA (American Psychological Association) »

Audio Podcast

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Bell, T. & Phillips, T. (2008, May 6). A solar flare. Science @ NASA Podcast. Podcast retrieved from http://science.nasa.gov/podcast.htm

Video Podcasts

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, January 5). The community college classroom [Episode 7]. Adventures in Education. Podcast retrieved from http://www.adveeducation.com

Motion Picture

Basic reference list format:

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Music Recording

Songwriter, W. W. (Date of copyright). Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from song writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date).
Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London, England: Big Pig Music Limited.

MLA »

An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)

Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, the medium of publication, and the date of access.

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo National del Prado. Web. 22 May 2006.
Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive. Web. 22 May 2006.

If the work is cited on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, the medium of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.

brandychloe. "Great Horned Owl Family." Photograph. Webshots. American Greetings, 22 May 2006. Web. 5 Nov. 2009.

Films or Movies

List films (in theaters or not yet on DVD or video) by their title. Include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the release year. If relevant, list performer names after the director’s name. Use the abbreviation perf. to head the list. List film as the medium of publication. To cite a DVD or other video recording, see “Recorded Films and Movies” below.

The Usual Suspects. Dir. Bryan Singer. Perf. Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chazz Palminteri, Stephen Baldwin, and Benecio del Toro. Polygram, 1995. Film.

To emphasize specific performers (perf.) or directors (dir.), begin the citation with the name of the desired performer or director, followed by the appropriate abbreviation.

Lucas, George, dir. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977. Film.

Digital Files (PDFs, MP3s, JPEGs)

Determine the type of work to cite (e.g. article, image, sound recording) and cite appropriately. End the entry with the name of the digital format (e.g. PDF, JPEG file, Microsoft Word file, MP3). If the work does not follow traditional parameters for citation, give the author’s name, the name of the work, the date of creation, and the medium of publication. Use Digital file when the medium cannot be determined.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Moonlight Sonata. Crownstar, 2006. MP3.
Smith, George. “Pax Americana: Strife in a Time of Peace.” 2005. Microsoft Word file.
Bentley, Phyllis. “Yorkshire and the Novelist.” The Kenyon Review 30.4 (1968): 509-22. JSTOR. PDF file.

Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), 15th Ed. »

Blank Form for Online Multimedia

FOOTNOTE OR ENDNOTE:

    1. Performer, Writer or Creator. Title of Podcast, Running Time; Title of Source, Format, url (access Date).

BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRY:

Performer, Writer or Creator. Title of Podcast; Running Time. Title of Source. Format. url (access Date).

General Model for Citing Film, Television, and Other Recorded Mediums

FOOTNOTE OR ENDNOTE:

    1. Title of work, Format, Director (Original Release Year; City: Studio/distributor, Video Release Year.)

BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRY:

Title of work. Format. Director. Original Release Year. City: Studio/distributor, Video Release Year.